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Excel Math and Trigonometry Functions Guide

A short guide to the Excel Math and Trigonometry functions, including SUM, SUMIFS, ROUND, RAND, and many more.

Author: Debra Dalgleish

Introduction: Excel Math and Trig Functions

These functions perform basic and advanced mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, logarithms, and trigonometry.

Some of the most-used mathematical functions are SUM (which adds up a range of numbers), AVERAGE (which calculates the average of a range of numbers), and ROUND (which rounds a number to a specified number of digits)

This guide will give you a quick overview of key Math and Trig functions, and will lead you to in-depth articles, where you'll find detailed examples, step-by-step videos, and sample files to download.

Excel Sum Functions

The first Excel function that most people learn is SUM, to get the total for a range of cells that contain numbers. You can also calculate totals based on one criterion, using SUMIF, or multiple criteria, using SUMIFS.

For a quick overview of 7 different ways to sum numbers with Excel functions, you can watch this 9-minute video. There is a SUMIFS example, below the video, and a link to more examples.

Video Timeline

• 0:00 Introduction
• 0:09 1. Quick Grand Totals
• 0:45 2. Sum Specific Cells
• 1:56 3. Running Total
• 3:28 4. Sum Specific Items
• 4:41 5. Sum Partial Match
• 6:21 6. Sum With Multiple Criteria
• 7:46 7. Sum in Filtered List
• 09:27 Get the Sample File -- Download the 7 Ways to Sum sample file

Example - SUMIFS - Match multiple criteria

In this example, the SUMIFS function will sum the amounts in column D, based on 2 criteria:

• the status in column B is "Shipped"
• number of units in column C is greater than or equal to 10

Those criteria are entered in cells F6 (Shipped) and G6 (10)

To calculate the total amount, based on those two criteria, enter the following formula in cell A14:

• =SUMIFS(D3:D10,B3:B10, "Shipped", C3:C10,">=" & 10)

Tip: To make the formula more flexible, so you can easily change the criteria if needed, refer to worksheet cells, instead of typing the criteria in the formula. For example:

• =SUMIFS(D3:D10,B3:B10, F6, C3:C10,">=" & G6)

RAND and RANDBETWEEN Functions

There are two Microsoft Excel functions that create random numbers -- RAND and RANDBETWEEN. Here is a quick overview of what each function does:

• RAND: Returns a random decimal number, between zero and 1
• RANDBETWEEN: Returns a random integer number, within a specified range of numbers

Example - Create Random Text and Numbers

In this video, RANDBETWEEN creates a set of random test score data, for records in a sample data file. When combined with CHOOSE, the RANDBETWEEN function can even return random text.

See the steps in this video, and the written instructions are below the video

Rounding Functions

Another widely-used Excel math and trig function is ROUND, which rounds a number to a specified number of digits. There are other rounding functions too -- ROUND, MROUND, FLOOR, CEILING and more.

To see a quick overview of 7 ways to round in Excel, you can watch this short slide show. There are step by step instructions, and the sample file, on read more about the Excel Rounding functions page.

Example - Round Age by Decade

In this example, insteading of reducing the decimal places in a formula result, the ROUND function rounds by 10s.

In the screen shot below, the age is rounded to the nearest decade, by using -1 as the number of decimal places to round. Because the number is negative, it rounds to the left of the decimal place.

• =ROUND(B4,-1)

Click the link to read more about the Excel Rounding functions, including ROUND, MROUND, FLOOR, CEILING and more. You'll find examples, videos, and sample Excel files to download.

More Math and Trig Function Pages

INT Function Example

Click the link to read more about the Excel INT function, and see how it can extract the date, from a combined date and time.. You'll find examples, videos, and sample Excel files to download.

SEQUENCE Function Example

Click the link to read more about the Excel SEQUENCE function, and see how it can create a list of numbers. You'll find examples, and asample Excel file to download.

All Excel Math and Trig Functions

Below is the full list of Excel Math and Trig Functions, and you can find more information on the Microsoft website.

• Note: Blue links go to the related function page, here on the Contextures site.

To see the full list of Excel Math and Trig functions, click on the green check box below. When you're finished, you can click the check box again, to hide the full list

Excel Math and Trig Functions - Full List

 ABS Returns the absolute value of a number ACOS Returns the arccosine of a number ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number ACOT Returns the arccotangent of a number ACOTH Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number AGGREGATE Returns an aggregate in a list or database ARABIC Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number ASIN Returns the arcsine of a number ASINH Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number ATAN Returns the arctangent of a number ATAN2 Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates ATANH Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number BASE Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base) CEILING.MATH Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance CEILING.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects COMBINA Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items COS Returns the cosine of a number COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number COT Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number COTH Returns the cotangent of an angle CSC Returns the cosecant of an angle CSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle DECIMAL Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number DEGREES Converts radians to degrees EVEN Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer EXP Returns e raised to the power of a given number FACT Returns the factorial of a number FACTDOUBLE Returns the double factorial of a number FLOOR.MATH Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance FLOOR.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. GCD Returns the greatest common divisor INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer ISO.CEILING Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance LCM Returns the least common multiple LN Returns the natural logarithm of a number LOG Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base LOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of an array MINVERSE Returns the matrix inverse of an array MMULT Returns the matrix product of two arrays MOD Returns the remainder from division MROUND Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple MULTINOMIAL Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers MUNIT Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension ODD Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer PI Returns the value of pi POWER Returns the result of a number raised to a power PRODUCT Multiplies its arguments QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division RADIANS Converts degrees to radians RAND Returns a random number between 0 and 1 RANDARRAY Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. However, you can specify the number of rows and columns to fill, minimum and maximum values, and whether to return whole numbers or decimal values. RANDBETWEEN Returns a random number between the numbers you specify ROMAN Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text ROUND Rounds a number to a specified number of digits ROUNDDOWN Rounds a number down, toward zero ROUNDUP Rounds a number up, away from zero SEC Returns the secant of an angle SECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle SEQUENCE Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4 SERIESSUM Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula SIGN Returns the sign of a number SIN Returns the sine of the given angle SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number SQRT Returns a positive square root SQRTPI Returns the square root of (number * pi) SUBTOTAL Returns a subtotal in a list or database SUM Adds its arguments SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria SUMIFS Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria SUMPRODUCT Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components SUMSQ Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments SUMX2MY2 Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays SUMX2PY2 Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays SUMXMY2 Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays TAN Returns the tangent of a number TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number TRUNC Truncates a number to an integer

More Functions

CHOOSE

LOOKUP

Lookup - 2 Criteria